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1036 - Disclosure - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|Reporting Entity [Axis]||0000004281 (http://www.sec.gov/CIK)|
|Legal Entity [Axis]||Entity [Domain]|
|Statement [Line Items]||Period [Axis]|
2012-01-01 - 2012-12-31
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation. The Consolidated Financial Statements of Alcoa Inc. and subsidiaries (“Alcoa” or the “Company”) are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) and require management to make certain judgments, estimates, and assumptions. These may affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. They also may affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates upon subsequent resolution of identified matters. Certain amounts in previously issued financial statements were reclassified to conform to the 2012 presentation (see Note B).
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation. The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Alcoa and companies in which Alcoa has a controlling interest. Intercompany transactions have been eliminated. The equity method of accounting is used for investments in affiliates and other joint ventures over which Alcoa has significant influence but does not have effective control. Investments in affiliates in which Alcoa cannot exercise significant influence are accounted for on the cost method.
Management also evaluates whether an Alcoa entity or interest is a variable interest entity and whether Alcoa is the primary beneficiary. Consolidation is required if both of these criteria are met. Alcoa does not have any variable interest entities requiring consolidation.
Related Party Transactions
Related Party Transactions. Alcoa buys products from and sells products to various related companies, consisting of entities in which Alcoa retains a 50% or less equity interest, at negotiated arms-length prices between the two parties. These transactions were not material to the financial position or results of operations of Alcoa for all periods presented.
Cash Equivalents. Cash equivalents are highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less.
Inventory Valuation. Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or market, with cost for a substantial portion of U.S. and Canadian inventories determined under the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method. The cost of other inventories is principally determined under the average-cost method.
Properties, Plants, and Equipment
Properties, Plants, and Equipment. Properties, plants, and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is recorded principally on the straight-line method at rates based on the estimated useful lives of the assets. For greenfield assets, which refer to the construction of new assets on undeveloped land, the units of production method is used to record depreciation. These assets require a significant period (generally greater than one-year) to ramp-up to full production capacity. As a result, the units of production method is deemed a more systematic and rational method for recognizing depreciation on these assets. Depreciation is recorded on temporarily idled facilities until such time management approves a permanent shutdown. The following table details the weighted-average useful lives of structures and machinery and equipment by reporting segment (numbers in years):
Gains or losses from the sale of assets are generally recorded in other income or expenses (see policy that follows for assets classified as held for sale and discontinued operations). Repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Interest related to the construction of qualifying assets is capitalized as part of the construction costs.
Properties, plants, and equipment are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets (asset group) may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets is determined by comparing the estimated undiscounted net cash flows of the operations related to the assets (asset group) to their carrying amount. An impairment loss would be recognized when the carrying amount of the assets (asset group) exceeds the estimated undiscounted net cash flows. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated as the excess of the carrying value of the assets (asset group) over their fair value, with fair value determined using the best information available, which generally is a discounted cash flow model (DCF model). The determination of what constitutes an asset group, the associated estimated undiscounted net cash flows, and the estimated useful lives of assets also require significant judgments.
Mineral Rights. Alcoa recognizes mineral rights upon specific acquisitions of land that include such underlying rights, primarily in Jamaica. This land is purchased for the sole purpose of mining bauxite. The underlying bauxite reserves are known at the time of acquisition based on associated drilling and analysis and are considered to be proven reserves. The acquisition cost of the land and mineral rights are amortized as the bauxite is produced based on the level of minable tons determined at the time of purchase. Mineral rights are included in Properties, plants, and equipment on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Deferred Mining Costs
Deferred Mining Costs. Alcoa recognizes deferred mining costs during the development stage of a mine life cycle. Such costs include the construction of access and haul roads, detailed drilling and geological analysis to further define the grade and quality of the known bauxite, and overburden removal costs. These costs relate to sections of the related mines where Alcoa is either currently extracting bauxite or is preparing for production in the near term. These sections are outlined and planned incrementally and generally are mined over periods ranging from one to five years, depending on mine specifics. The amount of geological drilling and testing necessary to determine the economic viability of the bauxite deposit being mined is such that the reserves are considered to be proven, and the mining costs are amortized based on this level of reserves. Deferred mining costs are included in Other noncurrent assets on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. Goodwill is not amortized; instead, it is reviewed for impairment annually (in the fourth quarter) or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist or if a decision is made to sell a business. A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indicator of impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include deterioration in general economic conditions, negative developments in equity and credit markets, adverse changes in the markets in which an entity operates, increases in input costs that have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, or a trend of negative or declining cash flows over multiple periods, among others. The fair value that could be realized in an actual transaction may differ from that used to evaluate the impairment of goodwill.
Goodwill is allocated among and evaluated for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. Alcoa has nine reporting units, of which five are included in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment. The remaining four reporting units are the Alumina segment, the Primary Metals segment, the Global Rolled Products segment, and the soft alloy extrusions business in Brazil, which is included in Corporate. Almost 90% of Alcoa’s total goodwill is allocated to three reporting units as follows: Alcoa Fastening Systems (AFS) ($1,160) and Alcoa Power and Propulsion (APP) ($1,628) businesses, both of which are included in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, and Primary Metals ($1,748). These amounts include an allocation of Corporate’s goodwill.
In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued new accounting guidance for testing goodwill for impairment (see Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance section of Note A below). The guidance provides an entity the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (more than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If an entity elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the entity is then required to perform the existing two-step quantitative impairment test (described below), otherwise no further analysis is required. An entity also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test. The ultimate outcome of the goodwill impairment review for a reporting unit should be the same whether an entity chooses to perform the qualitative assessment or proceeds directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test.
In the 2011 fourth quarter, in conjunction with management’s annual review of goodwill, Alcoa early adopted the new guidance. As a result, Alcoa instituted a policy for its annual review of goodwill to perform the qualitative assessment for all reporting units not subjected directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test. Management will proceed directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test for a minimum of three reporting units (based on facts and circumstances) during each annual review of goodwill. This policy will result in each of the nine reporting units being subjected to the two-step quantitative impairment test at least once during every three-year period.
Under the qualitative assessment, various events and circumstances (or factors) that would affect the estimated fair value of a reporting unit are identified (similar to impairment indicators above). These factors are then classified by the type of impact they would have on the estimated fair value using positive, neutral, and adverse categories based on current business conditions. Additionally, an assessment of the level of impact that a particular factor would have on the estimated fair value is determined using high, medium, and low weighting. Furthermore, management considers the results of the most recent two-step quantitative impairment test completed for a reporting unit (this would be 2011 and 2010 in which the estimated fair values of three and nine reporting units, respectively, were substantially in excess of their carrying values) and compares the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) between the current and prior years for each reporting unit.
During the 2012 annual review of goodwill, management performed the qualitative assessment for six reporting units. Management concluded that it was not more likely than not that the estimated fair values of the six reporting units were less than their carrying values. As such, no further analysis was required.
Under the two-step quantitative impairment test, the evaluation of impairment involves comparing the current fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Alcoa uses a DCF model to estimate the current fair value of its reporting units when testing for impairment, as management believes forecasted cash flows are the best indicator of such fair value. A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the DCF model to forecast operating cash flows, including markets and market share, sales volumes and prices, costs to produce, tax rates, capital spending, discount rate, and working capital changes. Most of these assumptions vary significantly among the reporting units. Cash flow forecasts are generally based on approved business unit operating plans for the early years and historical relationships in later years. The betas used in calculating the individual reporting units’ WACC rate are estimated for each business with the assistance of valuation experts.
In the event the estimated fair value of a reporting unit per the DCF model is less than the carrying value, additional analysis would be required. The additional analysis would compare the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the implied fair value of that goodwill, which may involve the use of valuation experts. The implied fair value of goodwill is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the fair value amounts assigned to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit as if the reporting unit was acquired in a business combination and the fair value of the reporting unit represented the purchase price. If the carrying value of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment loss equal to such excess would be recognized, which could significantly and adversely impact reported results of operations and shareholders’ equity.
During the 2012 annual review of goodwill, management proceeded directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test for three reporting units as follows: the Primary Metals segment, the Alumina segment, and the Global Rolled Products segment. For Global Rolled Products, the estimated fair value exceeded carrying value by more than 150%, resulting in no impairment. For Primary Metals and Alumina, the estimated fair values exceeded their carrying values by 9.2% and 7.4%, respectively, resulting in no impairment. These two reporting units have goodwill of $1,748 and $171, respectively. In developing the fair value of these reporting units, the Company estimates future cash flows using London Metal Exchange (LME) forward curve pricing and operating cost assumptions management believes are reasonable based on expected and historical performance. The following could have a negative impact on the estimated fair values of Primary Metals and Alumina: a significant, protracted decrease in LME and alumina prices; decrease in long-term profitability; decrease in the long-term demand for aluminum; substantial reductions in Alcoa’s end markets and volume assumptions; and an increase in discount rates.
As part of the 2012 annual review of goodwill, management considered the market capitalization of Alcoa’s common stock in relation to the Company’s total shareholders’ equity. At December 31, 2012, the market capitalization of Alcoa’s common stock was $9,263. While this amount is less than the Company’s total shareholders’ equity at December 31, 2012, the estimated aggregate fair value of Alcoa’s reporting units was substantially in excess of the aforementioned market capitalization amount. In management’s judgment, the main reason for the difference between Alcoa’s market capitalization and total shareholders’ equity at December 31, 2012 is significantly lower commodity prices for aluminum. Management believes these commodity prices are being adversely impacted by turmoil in the macroeconomic environment, which do not necessarily reflect aluminum industry fundamentals. For example, there was, and continues to be, significant uncertainty of the sovereign debt of many European countries. This uncertainty has affected the liquidity of many companies that either operate or are located in Europe, although, Alcoa has not been impacted significantly. Additionally, during 2012, there was great concern over what was labeled the fiscal cliff in the U.S. and a slowdown in the growth of China. The combination of this economic uncertainty and the continuing decline in commodity prices caused the price of Alcoa’s common stock to remain depressed. As a result, management believes the quoted market price of Alcoa’s common stock does not fully reflect the underlying value of the future aggregate cash flows of the Company’s reporting units. Accordingly, management does not believe that the comparison of Alcoa’s market capitalization and total shareholders’ equity as of December 31, 2012 is an indication that goodwill is impaired.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized while intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized generally on a straight-line basis over the periods benefited. The following table details the weighted-average useful lives of software and other intangible assets by reporting segment (numbers in years):
Equity Investments. Alcoa invests in a number of privately-held companies, primarily through joint ventures and consortia, which are accounted for on the equity method. The equity method is applied in situations where Alcoa has the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over the investee. Management reviews equity investments for impairment whenever certain indicators are present suggesting that the carrying value of an investment is not recoverable. This analysis requires a significant amount of judgment from management to identify events or circumstances indicating that an equity investment is impaired. The following items are examples of impairment indicators: significant, sustained declines in an investee’s revenue, earnings, and cash flow trends; adverse market conditions of the investee’s industry or geographic area; the investee’s ability to continue operations measured by several items, including liquidity; and other factors. Once an impairment indicator is identified, management uses considerable judgment to determine if the impairment is other than temporary, in which case the equity investment is written down to its estimated fair value. An impairment that is other than temporary could significantly and adversely impact reported results of operations.
Revenue Recognition. Alcoa recognizes revenue when title, ownership, and risk of loss pass to the customer, all of which occurs upon shipment or delivery of the product and is based on the applicable shipping terms. The shipping terms vary across all businesses and depend on the product, the country of origin, and the type of transportation (truck, train, or vessel).
Alcoa periodically enters into long-term supply contracts with alumina and aluminum customers and receives advance payments for product to be delivered in future periods. These advance payments are recorded as deferred revenue, and revenue is recognized as shipments are made and title, ownership, and risk of loss pass to the customer during the term of the contracts.
Environmental Matters. Expenditures for current operations are expensed or capitalized, as appropriate. Expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations, which will not contribute to future revenues, are expensed. Liabilities are recorded when remediation costs are probable and can be reasonably estimated. The liability may include costs such as site investigations, consultant fees, feasibility studies, outside contractors, and monitoring expenses. Estimates are generally not discounted or reduced by potential claims for recovery. Claims for recovery are recognized as agreements are reached with third parties. The estimates also include costs related to other potentially responsible parties to the extent that Alcoa has reason to believe such parties will not fully pay their proportionate share. The liability is continuously reviewed and adjusted to reflect current remediation progress, prospective estimates of required activity, and other factors that may be relevant, including changes in technology or regulations.
Litigation Matters. For asserted claims and assessments, liabilities are recorded when an unfavorable outcome of a matter is deemed to be probable and the loss is reasonably estimable. Management determines the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome based on many factors such as the nature of the matter, available defenses and case strategy, progress of the matter, views and opinions of legal counsel and other advisors, applicability and success of appeals processes, and the outcome of similar historical matters, among others. Once an unfavorable outcome is deemed probable, management weighs the probability of estimated losses, and the most reasonable loss estimate is recorded. If an unfavorable outcome of a matter is deemed to be reasonably possible, then the matter is disclosed and no liability is recorded. With respect to unasserted claims or assessments, management must first determine that the probability that an assertion will be made is likely, then, a determination as to the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to reasonably estimate the potential loss is made. Legal matters are reviewed on a continuous basis to determine if there has been a change in management’s judgment regarding the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome or the estimate of a potential loss.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset Retirement Obligations. Alcoa recognizes asset retirement obligations (AROs) related to legal obligations associated with the normal operation of Alcoa’s bauxite mining, alumina refining, and aluminum smelting facilities. These AROs consist primarily of costs associated with spent pot lining disposal, closure of bauxite residue areas, mine reclamation, and landfill closure. Alcoa also recognizes AROs for any significant lease restoration obligation, if required by a lease agreement, and for the disposal of regulated waste materials related to the demolition of certain power facilities. The fair values of these AROs are recorded on a discounted basis, at the time the obligation is incurred, and accreted over time for the change in present value. Additionally, Alcoa capitalizes asset retirement costs by increasing the carrying amount of the related long-lived assets and depreciating these assets over their remaining useful life.
Certain conditional asset retirement obligations (CAROs) related to alumina refineries, aluminum smelters, and fabrication facilities have not been recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements due to uncertainties surrounding the ultimate settlement date. A CARO is a legal obligation to perform an asset retirement activity in which the timing and (or) method of settlement are conditional on a future event that may or may not be within Alcoa’s control. Such uncertainties exist as a result of the perpetual nature of the structures, maintenance and upgrade programs, and other factors. At the date a reasonable estimate of the ultimate settlement date can be made, Alcoa would record an ARO for the removal, treatment, transportation, storage, and (or) disposal of various regulated assets and hazardous materials such as asbestos, underground and aboveground storage tanks, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various process residuals, solid wastes, electronic equipment waste, and various other materials. Such amounts may be material to the Consolidated Financial Statements in the period in which they are recorded.
Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, the provision for income taxes represents income taxes paid or payable (or received or receivable) for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid, and result from differences between the financial and tax bases of Alcoa’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when enacted.
Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. In evaluating the need for a valuation allowance, management considers all potential sources of taxable income, including income available in carryback periods, future reversals of taxable temporary differences, projections of taxable income, and income from tax planning strategies, as well as all available positive and negative evidence. Positive evidence includes factors such as a history of profitable operations, projections of future profitability within the carryforward period, including from tax planning strategies, and the Company’s experience with similar operations. Existing favorable contracts and the ability to sell products into established markets are additional positive evidence. Negative evidence includes items such as cumulative losses, projections of future losses, or carryforward periods that are not long enough to allow for the utilization of a deferred tax asset based on existing projections of income. Deferred tax assets for which no valuation allowance is recorded may not be realized upon changes in facts and circumstances, resulting in a future charge to establish a valuation allowance.
Tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken on a tax return are recorded when such benefits meet a more likely than not threshold. Otherwise, these tax benefits are recorded when a tax position has been effectively settled, which means that the statute of limitation has expired or the appropriate taxing authority has completed their examination even though the statute of limitations remains open. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes and are accrued beginning in the period that such interest and penalties would be applicable under relevant tax law until such time that the related tax benefits are recognized.
Stock-Based Compensation. Alcoa recognizes compensation expense for employee equity grants using the non-substantive vesting period approach, in which the expense (net of estimated forfeitures) is recognized ratably over the requisite service period based on the grant date fair value. The fair value of new stock options is estimated on the date of grant using a lattice-pricing model. Determining the fair value of stock options at the grant date requires judgment, including estimates for the average risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, volatility, annual forfeiture rate, and exercise behavior. These assumptions may differ significantly between grant dates because of changes in the actual results of these inputs that occur over time.
Most plan participants can choose whether to receive their award in the form of stock options, stock awards, or a combination of both. This choice is made before the grant is issued and is irrevocable.
Derivatives and Hedging
Derivatives and Hedging. Derivatives are held for purposes other than trading and are part of a formally documented risk management program. For derivatives designated as fair value hedges, Alcoa measures hedge effectiveness by formally assessing, at least quarterly, the historical high correlation of changes in the fair value of the hedged item and the derivative hedging instrument. For derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, Alcoa measures hedge effectiveness by formally assessing, at least quarterly, the probable high correlation of the expected future cash flows of the hedged item and the derivative hedging instrument. The ineffective portions of both types of hedges are recorded in sales or other income or expense in the current period. If the hedging relationship ceases to be highly effective or it becomes probable that an expected transaction will no longer occur, future gains or losses on the derivative instrument are recorded in other income or expense.
Alcoa accounts for interest rate swaps related to its existing long-term debt and hedges of firm customer commitments for aluminum as fair value hedges. As a result, the fair values of the derivatives and changes in the fair values of the underlying hedged items are reported in other current and noncurrent assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Changes in the fair values of these derivatives and underlying hedged items generally offset and are recorded each period in sales or interest expense, consistent with the underlying hedged item.
Alcoa accounts for hedges of foreign currency exposures and certain forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges. The fair values of the derivatives are recorded in other current and noncurrent assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The effective portions of the changes in the fair values of these derivatives are recorded in other comprehensive income and are reclassified to sales, cost of goods sold, or other income or expense in the period in which earnings are impacted by the hedged items or in the period that the transaction no longer qualifies as a cash flow hedge. These contracts cover the same periods as known or expected exposures, generally not exceeding five years.
If no hedging relationship is designated, the derivative is marked to market through earnings.
Cash flows from derivatives are recognized in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows in a manner consistent with the underlying transactions.
Foreign Currency. The local currency is the functional currency for Alcoa’s significant operations outside the U.S., except for certain operations in Canada, Russia and Iceland, where the U.S. dollar is used as the functional currency. The determination of the functional currency for Alcoa’s operations is made based on the appropriate economic and management indicators.
Effective January 1, 2010, the functional currency of a subsidiary located in Brazil (that is part of Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals, which is 60% owned by Alcoa and 40% owned by Alumina Limited) was changed from the U.S. dollar to the Brazilian real (BRL). This change was made as a result of changes in the operations of the business following the completion of the São Luís refinery expansion and Juruti bauxite mine development. In connection with this change, on January 1, 2010, an adjustment of $309 was recorded as an increase to the net nonmonetary assets of this subsidiary (primarily properties, plants, and equipment) with a corresponding adjustment to the foreign currency translation component of Accumulated other comprehensive loss. The functional currency of all of Alcoa’s Brazilian operations is now BRL.
Acquisitions. Alcoa’s business acquisitions are accounted for using the acquisition method. The purchase price is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. Any excess purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. For all acquisitions, operating results are included in the Statement of Consolidated Operations since the dates of the acquisitions
Discontinued Operations and Assets Held For Sale
Discontinued Operations and Assets Held For Sale. For those businesses where management has committed to a plan to divest, each business is valued at the lower of its carrying amount or estimated fair value less cost to sell. If the carrying amount of the business exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment loss is recognized. Fair value is estimated using accepted valuation techniques such as a DCF model, valuations performed by third parties, earnings multiples, or indicative bids, when available. A number of significant estimates and assumptions are involved in the application of these techniques, including the forecasting of markets and market share, sales volumes and prices, costs and expenses, and multiple other factors. Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the estimates are made; however, the fair value that is ultimately realized upon the divestiture of a business may differ from the estimated fair value reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense is not recorded on assets of a business to be divested once they are classified as held for sale. Businesses to be divested are classified in the Consolidated Financial Statements as either discontinued operations or held for sale.
For businesses classified as discontinued operations, the balance sheet amounts and results of operations are reclassified from their historical presentation to assets and liabilities of operations held for sale on the Consolidated Balance Sheet and to discontinued operations on the Statement of Consolidated Operations, respectively, for all periods presented. The gains or losses associated with these divested businesses are recorded in discontinued operations on the Statement of Consolidated Operations. The Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows is also reclassified for assets and liabilities of operations held for sale and discontinued operations for all periods presented. Additionally, segment information does not include the assets or operating results of businesses classified as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Management does not expect any continuing involvement with these businesses following their divestiture, and these businesses are expected to be disposed of within one year.
For businesses classified as held for sale that do not qualify for discontinued operations treatment, the balance sheet and cash flow amounts are reclassified from their historical presentation to assets and liabilities of operations held for sale for all periods presented. The results of operations continue to be reported in continuing operations. The gains or losses associated with these divested businesses are recorded in restructuring and other charges on the Statement of Consolidated Operations. The segment information includes the assets and operating results of businesses classified as held for sale for all periods presented. Management expects that Alcoa will have continuing involvement with these businesses following their divestiture, primarily in the form of equity participation, or ongoing aluminum or other significant supply contracts.
Fair Value Accounting
Fair Value Accounting—On January 1, 2012, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) to conform existing guidance regarding fair value measurement and disclosure between GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. These changes both clarify the FASB’s intent about the application of existing fair value measurement and disclosure requirements and amend certain principles or requirements for measuring fair value or for disclosing information about fair value measurements. The clarifying changes relate to the application of the highest and best use and valuation premise concepts, measuring the fair value of an instrument classified in a reporting entity’s shareholders’ equity, and disclosure of quantitative information about unobservable inputs used for Level 3 fair value measurements. The amendments relate to measuring the fair value of financial instruments that are managed within a portfolio; application of premiums and discounts in a fair value measurement; and additional disclosures concerning the valuation processes used and sensitivity of the fair value measurement to changes in unobservable inputs for those items categorized as Level 3, a reporting entity’s use of a nonfinancial asset in a way that differs from the asset’s highest and best use, and the categorization by level in the fair value hierarchy for items required to be measured at fair value for disclosure purposes only. Other than the additional disclosure requirements (see Note X), the adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2011, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. Specifically, the changes require a reporting entity to disclose, in the reconciliation of fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3), separate information about purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements (that is, on a gross basis rather than as one net number). These changes were applied to the disclosures in Note W and the Derivatives section of Note X to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Effective January 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB on January 21, 2010 to disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. Specifically, the changes require a reporting entity to disclose separately the amounts of significant transfers in and out of Level 1 and Level 2 fair value measurements and describe the reasons for the transfers. The changes also clarify existing disclosure requirements related to how assets and liabilities should be grouped by class and valuation techniques used for recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Business Combinations and Consolidation Accounting
Business Combinations and Consolidation Accounting—On January 1, 2011, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to the disclosure of pro forma information for business combinations. These changes clarify that if a public entity presents comparative financial statements, the entity should disclose revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combination that occurred during the current year had occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. Also, the existing supplemental pro forma disclosures were expanded to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination included in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to accounting for variable interest entities. These changes require an enterprise to perform an analysis to determine whether the enterprise’s variable interest or interests give it a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity; to require ongoing reassessments of whether an enterprise is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity; to eliminate the solely quantitative approach previously required for determining the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity; to add an additional reconsideration event for determining whether an entity is a variable interest entity when any changes in facts and circumstances occur such that holders of the equity investment at risk, as a group, lose the power from voting rights or similar rights of those investments to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance; and to require enhanced disclosures that will provide users of financial statements with more transparent information about an enterprise’s involvement in a variable interest entity. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Effective January 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB on January 6, 2010 for a scope clarification to the FASB’s previously-issued guidance (in December 2007) on accounting for noncontrolling interests in consolidated financial statements. These changes clarify the accounting and reporting guidance for noncontrolling interests and changes in ownership interests of a consolidated subsidiary. An entity is required to deconsolidate a subsidiary when the entity ceases to have a controlling financial interest in the subsidiary. Upon deconsolidation of a subsidiary, an entity recognizes a gain or loss on the transaction and measures any retained investment in the subsidiary at fair value. The gain or loss includes any gain or loss associated with the difference between the fair value of the retained investment in the subsidiary and its carrying amount at the date the subsidiary is deconsolidated. In contrast, an entity is required to account for a decrease in its ownership interest of a subsidiary that does not result in a change of control of the subsidiary as an equity transaction. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets—On January 1, 2011, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to the testing of goodwill for impairment. These changes require an entity to perform all steps in the test for a reporting unit whose carrying value is zero or negative if it is more likely than not (more than 50%) that a goodwill impairment exists based on qualitative factors. This will result in the elimination of an entity’s ability to assert that such a reporting unit’s goodwill is not impaired and additional testing is not necessary despite the existence of qualitative factors that indicate otherwise. Based on the then most recent impairment review of Alcoa’s goodwill (2011 fourth quarter), the adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In September 2011, the FASB issued changes to the testing of goodwill for impairment. These changes provide an entity the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (more than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Such qualitative factors may include the following: macroeconomic conditions; industry and market considerations; cost factors; overall financial performance; and other relevant entity-specific events. If an entity elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the entity is then required to perform the existing two-step quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. An entity also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test. Under either option, the ultimate outcome of the goodwill impairment test should be the same. These changes are required to become effective for Alcoa for any goodwill impairment test performed on January 1, 2012 or later; however, early adoption is permitted. Alcoa elected to early adopt these changes in conjunction with management’s annual review of goodwill in the fourth quarter of 2011 (see the Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets section of Note A above). The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other—On January 1, 2012, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to the presentation of comprehensive income. These changes give an entity the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements; the option to present components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity was eliminated. The items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income were not changed. Additionally, no changes were made to the calculation and presentation of earnings per share. Management elected to present the two-statement option. Other than the change in presentation, the adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2011, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to revenue recognition for multiple-deliverable arrangements. These changes require separation of consideration received in such arrangements by establishing a selling price hierarchy (not the same as fair value) for determining the selling price of a deliverable, which will be based on available information in the following order: vendor-specific objective evidence, third-party evidence, or estimated selling price; eliminate the residual method of allocation and require that the consideration be allocated at the inception of the arrangement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method, which allocates any discount in the arrangement to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable’s selling price; require that a vendor determine its best estimate of selling price in a manner that is consistent with that used to determine the price to sell the deliverable on a standalone basis; and expand the disclosures related to multiple-deliverable revenue arrangements. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements, as Alcoa does not currently have any such arrangements with its customers.
On January 1, 2011, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to the classification of certain employee share-based payment awards. These changes clarify that there is not an indication of a condition that is other than market, performance, or service if an employee share-based payment award’s exercise price is denominated in the currency of a market in which a substantial portion of the entity’s equity securities trade and differs from the functional currency of the employer entity or payroll currency of the employee. An employee share-based payment award is required to be classified as a liability if the award does not contain a market, performance, or service condition. Prior to this guidance, the difference between the currency denomination of an employee share-based payment award’s exercise price and the functional currency of the employer entity or payroll currency of the employee was not a factor considered by management when determining the proper classification of a share-based payment award. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB to accounting for transfers of financial assets. These changes remove the concept of a qualifying special-purpose entity and remove the exception from the application of variable interest accounting to variable interest entities that are qualifying special-purpose entities; limit the circumstances in which a transferor derecognizes a portion or component of a financial asset; define a participating interest; require a transferor to recognize and initially measure at fair value all assets obtained and liabilities incurred as a result of a transfer accounted for as a sale; and require enhanced disclosure. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements. In March 2010, management terminated the Company’s accounts receivable securitization program; had this program not been terminated, the adoption of these changes would have resulted in a $250 increase to both Receivables from customers and Short-term borrowings on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Effective January 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes issued by the FASB on February 24, 2010 to accounting for and disclosure of events that occur after the balance sheet date but before financial statements are issued or available to be issued, otherwise known as “subsequent events.” Specifically, these changes clarify that an entity that is required to file or furnish its financial statements with the Securities and Exchange Commission is not required to disclose the date through which subsequent events have been evaluated, as had been previously required by changes issued by the FASB in May 2009. Other than the elimination of disclosing the date through which management has performed its evaluation for subsequent events (see Note Y), the adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On July 1, 2010, Alcoa adopted changes to existing accounting requirements for embedded credit derivatives. Specifically, the changes clarify the scope exception regarding when embedded credit derivative features are not considered embedded derivatives subject to potential bifurcation and separate accounting. The adoption of these changes had no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance. In July 2012, the FASB issued changes to the testing of indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, similar to the goodwill changes issued in September 2011. These changes provide an entity the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (more than 50%) that the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. Such qualitative factors may include the following: macroeconomic conditions; industry and market considerations; cost factors; overall financial performance; and other relevant entity-specific events. If an entity elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the entity is then required to perform the existing two-step quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. An entity also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test. These changes become effective for Alcoa for any indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test performed on January 1, 2013 or later, although early adoption is permitted. Upon adoption of these changes, management plans to proceed directly to the two-step quantitative test for Alcoa’s indefinite-lived intangible assets. As these changes should not affect the outcome of the impairment analysis of an indefinite-lived intangible asset, management has determined these changes will not have an impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2011, the FASB issued changes to the disclosure of offsetting assets and liabilities. These changes require an entity to disclose both gross information and net information about both instruments and transactions eligible for offset in the statement of financial position and instruments and transactions subject to an agreement similar to a master netting arrangement. The enhanced disclosures will enable users of an entity’s financial statements to understand and evaluate the effect or potential effect of master netting arrangements on an entity’s financial position, including the effect or potential effect of rights of setoff associated with certain financial instruments and derivative instruments. These changes become effective for Alcoa on January 1, 2013. Other than the additional disclosure requirements, management has determined that the adoption of these changes will not have an impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.