Environmental and legal matters
The company is regulated by federal, state and international environmental laws governing our use, transport and disposal of substances and control of emissions. In addition to governing our manufacturing and other operations, these laws often impact the development of our products, including, but not limited to, required compliance with air emissions standards applicable to internal combustion engines. We have made, and will continue to make, significant research and development and capital expenditures to comply with these emissions standards.
We are engaged in remedial activities at a number of locations, often with other companies, pursuant to federal and state laws.  When it is probable we will pay remedial costs at a site, and those costs can be reasonably estimated, the investigation, remediation, and operating and maintenance costs are accrued against our earnings.  Costs are accrued based on consideration of currently available data and information with respect to each individual site, including available technologies, current applicable laws and regulations, and prior remediation experience. Where no amount within a range of estimates is more likely, we accrue the minimum. Where multiple potentially responsible parties are involved, we consider our proportionate share of the probable costs. In formulating the estimate of probable costs, we do not consider amounts expected to be recovered from insurance companies or others.  We reassess these accrued amounts on a quarterly basis. The amount recorded for environmental remediation is not material and is included in Accrued expenses in Statement 3. There is no more than a remote chance that a material amount for remedial activities at any individual site, or at all the sites in the aggregate, will be required.

On October 24, 2013, Progress Rail Services Corporation (Progress Rail), a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc., received a grand jury subpoena from the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California. The subpoena requests documents and information from Progress Rail, United Industries Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Progress Rail, and Caterpillar Inc. relating to allegations that Progress Rail conducted improper or unnecessary railcar inspections and repairs and improperly disposed of parts, equipment, tools and other items. In connection with this subpoena, Progress Rail was informed by the U.S. Attorney for the Central District of California that it is a target of a criminal investigation into potential violations of environmental laws and alleged improper business practices. The Company is cooperating with the authorities. The Company is unable to predict the outcome or reasonably estimate the potential loss; however, we currently believe that this matter will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated results of operation, financial position or liquidity.

Beginning in September 2010, the company filed a series of legal claims to collect policy proceeds from a third party insurance company to recover amounts paid for covered asbestos defense and settlement costs for occurrences between 1962 and 1981. In the fourth quarter of 2013, the company reached final settlement with the third party insurance company. As a result, a gain of $68 million was recognized in Other operating (income) expense in Statement 1.

In addition, we are involved in other unresolved legal actions that arise in the normal course of business. The most prevalent of these unresolved actions involve disputes related to product design, manufacture and performance liability (including claimed asbestos and welding fumes exposure), contracts, employment issues, environmental matters or intellectual property rights.  The aggregate range of reasonably possible losses in excess of accrued liabilities, if any, associated with these unresolved legal actions is not material.  In some cases, we cannot reasonably estimate a range of loss because there is insufficient information regarding the matter.  However, there is no more than a remote chance that any liability arising from these matters would be material.  Although it is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of these unresolved legal actions, we believe that these actions will not individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position or liquidity.